DATE2022-06-22 20:55:59
TITLEMediterranean climate at multiple temporal scales, from Deep Time to the recent Past
AUTHORSMaria Triantaphyllou (1) ,Neil Roberts (2) ,Giovanni Zanchetta (3) ,Eleonora Regattieri (4) ,Alexandra Gogou (5) ,Martin Finne (6) ,Lucas Lourens (7) ,Juerg Luterbacher (8) ,Belen Martrat (9) ,Maria-fernanda Sanchez-goni (10) ,Dominik Fleitmann (11) ,Elena Xoplaki (12)
  1. 1) National And Kapodistrian University Of Athens, Athens (Greece) ,2) University Of Plymouth, Plymouth (United Kingdom) ,3) Universita Di Pisa, Pisa (Italy) ,4) Igg-cnr, Pisa (Italy) ,5) Hellenic Centre For Marine Research, Athens (Greece) ,6) Upsalla Universitet, Upsalla (Sweden) ,7) Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands) ,8) World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (Switzerland) ,9) Idaea-csic, Barcelona (Spain) ,10) Université De Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France) ,11) University Of Basel, Basel (Switzerland) ,12) University Of Giessen, Giessen (Germany)
ABSTRACTThis review article will consider the evolution of the Mediterranean climate since the establishment of its present paleogeography at the base of the Pliocene Epoch (ca. 5.33 million years ago). It will summarise the most important available evidence across different time scales (annual-to-millennial), reinforcing past-present-future connections and highlighting the short-to-long term external forcings and internal dynamics relevant to current regional climate issues under rising greenhouse gas concentrations. Selected Deep Time paleoclimate windows will include geohistorical analogues of the current climate such as the mid Pliocene Warm Period, when ice-sheet extension was reduced, and the cooling progression towards the 100-kyr Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles, till our present interglacial, the Holocene, with emphasis on the Common Era, i.e. the past 2k up to the beginning of the instrumental record. It will also investigate the last millennia human-climate co-evolution, providing a context for today’s unprecedented climate-emergency situation. In paleorecords, responses of slow components of the climate system are documenting the carbon cycle, ice sheet dynamics and the deep ocean perturbations with fast-reacting atmospheric processes. This enables us to inform on mechanisms of abrupt and irreversible changes, as projected for future climate at a global scale. The connection between short and long temporal changes is not trivial in the Mediterranean, due to variable regional impacts of past global climate changes, and to strong sub-regionalization of environmental patterns, often hard to simulate with current modelling of local atmospheric and oceanic processes. Hence, the review will aim to facilitate data-model comparison, integrating the use of paleoclimate data to help with testing future climate model predictions in the Mediterranean.