|ABSTRACT||The whole Mediterranean is suffering today from the impacts of climate change, and impacts are projected to be even more dramatic in the next decades. Egypt, on the southern border of the Mediterranean, is one of the Countries which already suffer due from water, food, and health problems, and the effects are even more exacerbated due to the arid climate conditions that characterize the Country.
The largest water resources for the Country are from the river Nile (about 97%), and the rest is from (winter) rain and non-renewable ground water aquifers. In more recent years another important source is represented by non-conventional water, such as treated wastewater reuse and desalination, which are increasingly becoming an additional contributor to water availability.
Although Egypt has limited rainfall, some studies have shown that a significant amount of water from rainfall and flash floods is available. Heavy rainfall and flash floods are responsible for huge losses of lives and infrastructure specially in parts of the Country, despite the semi-arid/arid/hyper-arid climate, and, on the other side, contribute to the discharge of river Nile, and, if opportunely conveyed and treated, can also represent a source of fresh water.
In order to evaluate the water harvesting potential in semi-arid, water scarce and flashflood prone, areas of Egypt, a climatology of rainfall events and flash floods is presented and, in order to provide indications useful for improving the forecast of the phenomenon, results are presented of the dynamics of some selected episodes: their generation and evolution relatively to larger scale patterns.
If the climatological study will provide useful information needed to identify and implement appropriate conservation measures for archaeological sites, better forecast will, in turn, help to evaluate the flash flood water volumes at the outlets of the effective watershed(s), and this information will help policy makers and local governments to define strategies and measures for water harvesting and/or protection works.|