|Urban warming represents a major concern in the context of climate change, particularly in arid and Mediterranean climates. In the last years, several studies on the quantification of the effect of soil anthropization and Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects on air and surface temperature have been performed worldwide. Research on this issue has been widely developed across the Mediterranean region, focusing mainly on the most urbanized city areas like Athens, Tel Aviv and Barcelona. In this work, we explore the possibility to relate the temperature variations in recent years to the incorporation of the thermometers in more and more urbanized areas in the Mediterranean region, thus investigating how UHI effect could contribute to climate warming at a regional scale. We use satellite nighttime images (nightlights) as proxy of human presence/urbanization. We compare the temporal trend of nightlights in the period 1992-2013 to that of temperature data for stations in the Mediterranean area, as retrieved from Berkeley Earth database. P values for the Student's t test have been computed, in order to assess the significativity of the slope of the regression lines. Our results show that African and Asian Mediterranean countries reveal a significant positive concordance, i.e. positive significant temperature trend in concomitance with a significant per year increment of nightlights, while Europe countries show more complex patterns, depending on the considered country and strategies adopted for light pollution reduction. Nightlights may offer interesting insights to better understand the impact of urban growth and soil anthropization on increasing temperatures worldwide, particularly in developing and emerging countries, where urban areas are growing at a fast pace.